• Here, we will link to reports published by EFSA journal associated to ENETWILD
  • We also include links to other reports associated to African Swine Fever
  • Users will be able to access to outputs (predictions) from modelling in the map section
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Report of the 1st Annual General Meeting of ENETWILD Parma, 16‐18 January 2018

Abstract

The ENETWILD consortium (www.enetwild.com) has implemented an EFSA‐funded project whose main objective is to collect information and model the geographical distribution and abundance of wild boar throughout Europe. This is of particular concern owing to the spread of African swine fever from Eastern areas. In January 2018, ENETWILD organised discussion workshops for 70 experts in the field of the ecology, management and epidemiology of wild boar. Three workshops addressed the following questions: (1) what kind of data is needed to develop wild boar abundance maps?; (2) how can estimates of boar abundance be harmonised between regions?; and (3) how can the collection of wild boar distribution and abundance data be improved? In order to collect data on the presence/absence and abundance of wild boar obtained from different sources (administrations, hunters, naturalists and researchers), it is necessary to work on the generation, collection and processing of data in a harmonised manner, thus enabling the information to be comparable and used at a European level. The use of information on hunting statistics (number of animals hunted and hunting effort per surface unit) is particularly essential. The strategy is based on, firstly, collecting existing non‐harmonised wild boar data in the short‐term (occurrence and hunting statistics) by collecting the more accessible data. As a second step, ENETWILD distributed a questionnaire on how and where the data concerning hunting statistics are collected throughout the different Countries or regions in Europe. The objective of this questionnaire was to identify those places in which hunting statistics are still disaggregated (at the highest spatial resolution), with the purpose of standardising the means employed to collect hunting data in Europe. The following step consisted of the appropriate collection of data, using a data model and supported by a data‐sharing agreement.

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Guidance on estimation of wild boar population abundance and density: methods, challenges, possibilities

Abstract

Heterogeneities in the wild boar data collection frameworks across Europe were analysed using questionnaires to explore comparability of hunting data in the short term and propose a common framework for future collection. Fifty‐seven respondents representing 32 countries covering more than 95% of European territory participated to the questionnaire. The most frequently recorded information in the official statistics included the quantity of animals shot per hunting ground and season (24 countries) and the size of the hunting (management) ground (21 countries). Georeferenced maps for the hunting grounds were collected (total or partial) for 20 countries. The least frequently recorded information was at the level of hunting events. We conclude that (i) sources of hunting statistics providing quantitative information on wild boar (and by extension, for other big game species) are lacking or are not harmonised across Europe, as well as incomplete, dispersed and difficult to compare; (ii) a feasible effort is needed to achieve harmonisation of data in a short time for the most basic statistics at the hunting ground level, and (iii) the coordination of the collection of hunting statistics must be achieved first at national and then at European level. The following is recommended: (i) countries should collect data at hunting ground level; (ii) efforts should be focused on data‐poor countries (e.g. Eastern Europe), and (iii) the data should be collected at the finest spatial and temporal resolution, i.e. at hunting event level. ENETWILD proposes the development of a robust and well‐informed data collection model as the basis for a common data collection framework. The present report identified some countries where, though the potential to share good quality data is present, the data collection promoted by ENETWILD has not succeeded so far (i. e. Eastern Europe). This highlights the need of further strategies to be developed so to encourage and support these countries to share hunting data.

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Wild boar in focus: Review of existing models on spatial distribution and density of wild boar and proposal for next steps

Abstract

This report provides a review of existing models for predicting the spatial distribution and abundance of wild boar at various scales (global, continental, national and regional) in order to inform the development of a new model to produce estimates of wild boar abundance at European level. The review identifies and discusses a range of models based on a wide variety of data types, corresponding to those targeted by the data collection model set by ENETwild, such as occurrence data (presence‐only, presence‐background and presence‐absence), hunting bag data and density data. The reviewed models are categorised in two main groups, the first based on occurrence data to predict a distribution of wild boar, and the second based on hunting bag, census and/or density data to directly model abundance. Owing to the diversity of methodologies, an ensemble modelling approach is here proposed for combining the outputs from a range of complimentary models and generating density estimates of wild boar at European scale. This would retain the flexibility necessary to utilise all available data whilst maintaining a robust output. An initial model has been outlined which uses occurrence data to generate wild boar distribution across Europe. The resulting suitability scores are related to available density estimates to establish a relationship, so the suitability map can be converted into a map of absolute density. In order to further utilize other types of data in this framework, the produced outputs of prediction of habitat suitability or presence/absence are used to underpin models based on available abundance data (hunting bag, census or density).

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Analysis of hunting statistics collection frameworks for wild boar across Europe and proposals for improving the harmonisation of data collection

Abstract

Heterogeneities in the wild boar data collection frameworks across Europe were analysed using questionnaires to explore comparability of hunting data in the short term and propose a common framework for future collection. Fifty‐seven respondents representing 32 countries covering more than 95% of European territory participated to the questionnaire. The most frequently recorded information in the official statistics included the quantity of animals shot per hunting ground and season (24 countries) and the size of the hunting (management) ground (21 countries). Georeferenced maps for the hunting grounds were collected (total or partial) for 20 countries. The least frequently recorded information was at the level of hunting events. We conclude that (i) sources of hunting statistics providing quantitative information on wild boar (and by extension, for other big game species) are lacking or are not harmonised across Europe, as well as incomplete, dispersed and difficult to compare; (ii) a feasible effort is needed to achieve harmonisation of data in a short time for the most basic statistics at the hunting ground level, and (iii) the coordination of the collection of hunting statistics must be achieved first at national and then at European level. The following is recommended: (i) countries should collect data at hunting ground level; (ii) efforts should be focused on data‐poor countries (e.g. Eastern Europe), and (iii) the data should be collected at the finest spatial and temporal resolution, i.e. at hunting event level. ENETWILD proposes the development of a robust and well‐informed data collection model as the basis for a common data collection framework. The present report identified some countries where, though the potential to share good quality data is present, the data collection promoted by ENETWILD has not succeeded so far (i. e. Eastern Europe). This highlights the need of further strategies to be developed so to encourage and support these countries to share hunting data.

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Wild boar in focus: initial model outputs of wild boar distribution based on occurrence data and identification of priority areas for data collection

Abstract

By reviewing the different types of data targeted by the ENETWILD Wild Boar Data Collection Model (occurrence, hunting bag, abundance data) that have become available, an initial model could be built with occurrence data. A preliminary model analysis was performed to estimate the likely distribution of wild boar comparing the performance of a presence‐only model (bioclim) and presence‐background model (MaxEnt). Based on the results of this modelling, locations were identified, notably in Eastern Europe, where more data are required in order to produce more robust model projections of occurrence. This report also outlines the current state of available data collected by ENETWILD (occurrence, hunting bag and density) on wild boar and the development of a model framework that can be used to produce outputs on the yearly density distributions at high resolution of wild boar at a European scale.

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